Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ISEBSWTINT-001
Exam Name : ISEB Software Testing Intermediate
Vendor Name : ISEB
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ISEBSWTINT-001 test Format | ISEBSWTINT-001 Course Contents | ISEBSWTINT-001 Course Outline | ISEBSWTINT-001 test Syllabus | ISEBSWTINT-001 test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The ISEBSWTINT-001 (ISEB Software Testing Intermediate) test is a certification test that assesses the knowledge and understanding of individuals in the field of software testing. It is designed for professionals who have foundational knowledge in software testing and are looking to advance their skills and expertise. Here is a detailed overview of the exam, including the number of questions and time, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The exact number of questions in the ISEBSWTINT-001 test may vary, but it typically consists of around 40 to 60 multiple-choice questions. The duration of the test is usually 90 minutes, allowing candidates sufficient time to answer the questions.

Course Outline:
The ISEBSWTINT-001 certification course covers various syllabus related to software testing at an intermediate level. The course outline may include the following components:

1. Software Testing Principles and Fundamentals:
- Introduction to software testing
- Software development life cycle
- Testing objectives and techniques
- Testing levels and types

2. Test Planning and Control:
- Test planning process
- Test estimation and scheduling
- Test monitoring and control
- Configuration management and change control

3. Test Analysis and Design:
- Test analysis techniques
- Test design techniques
- Test case development
- Test data preparation

4. Test Implementation and Execution:
- Test environment setup
- Test execution and reporting
- Defect management and tracking
- Test completion criteria

5. Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting:
- Test coverage analysis
- Test results analysis
- Test reporting and documentation
- Test closure activities

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the ISEBSWTINT-001 test are to evaluate the candidate's knowledge and understanding in the following areas:

- Software testing principles, concepts, and terminology
- Test planning, estimation, and control processes
- Test analysis and design techniques
- Test implementation and execution best practices
- Evaluation of test exit criteria and reporting

Exam Syllabus:
The ISEBSWTINT-001 test syllabus covers the following topics:

1. Software Testing Principles and Fundamentals
2. Test Planning and Control
3. Test Analysis and Design
4. Test Implementation and Execution
5. Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting

Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of these syllabus and their practical application in the software testing field. The test assesses their ability to apply testing principles, plan and control testing activities, analyze requirements and design effective test cases, execute tests, and evaluate test results.

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ISEB Testing PDF Braindumps


Our animal testing policy

Safe and healthy food, medicine, consumer products, and household chemicals, both at home and at work, are important to all of us. Research at TNO contributes to the development of these products and helps us predict whether substances are safe and effective. Sometimes animal testing is a necessary part of this research. Partly due to legal requirements and partly because there are no alternatives yet.

Our animal testing policy

We have formulated a meticulous animal testing policy, based on the following principles:

  • we only carry out animal testing if required by law or if no reliable alternatives are available
  • we actively contribute to the development and application of alternatives to animal testing (the three Rs: Reduction, Refinement, Replacement)
  • of course, they strictly adhere to the legal rules and regulations
  • Intrinsic value of animals

    We attach great importance to the intrinsic value of each individual animal. That is why all experiments are subject to ethical review and careful treatment of the laboratory animals is paramount. Animal testing is only permissible when there is no suitable alternative and the purpose of the research outweighs any inconvenience to the animal. This decision is taken for each individual study, weighing up the ethical necessity. Animal welfare is ensured under strict legislation by an independent Animal Experiments Committee.

    In addition, they actively participate in the social debate on the use of laboratory animals. They are well aware of developments in the field of animal testing that contribute to fewer animals or better living conditions and are hurry to apply them ourselves.

    Our policies

    Our policy on the use of laboratory animals is part of their TNO Corporate Social Responsibility policy and is the official guideline for the TNO management and employees. A working group on animal testing and alternatives evaluates the policy annually and reports directly to TNO's Executive Board.

    Laboratory animals have the right to optimal care throughout their lives. They agree with the view that certain circumstances justify the use of laboratory animals. They also realise that by carrying out animal experiments, the researcher and TNO’s Executive Board are responsible for the ethical considerations and animal welfare. TNO's Animal Welfare department and their employees together ensure a 'culture of care' for laboratory animals.

    Animal testing is only permissible when there is no suitable alternative and the purpose of the research outweighs the animals’ potential distress. The main principles are the reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal testing (3R). They operate within the boundaries of relevant legislation and, where applicable, according to quality criteria such as those of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC).

    Animal testing has enabled progress in science and in human health and welfare. Despite this, there is a need in the field for methods for which the predictive value for people, i.e., patients, is better substantiated. Improvements of current methods are possible by developing and applying innovative 3R methods. This idea is embedded in their policies, research programmes, and communications.

    Since 1985, a dedicated, independent animal testing committee has evaluated all tests involving animals. At the end of 2014, the Experiments on Animals Act was amended and since then this committee has been advising the Central Authority for Scientific Procedures on Animals. This makes the 2014 annual report the last report that the animal experiments committee submitted to TNO.

    Our ambition

    Our ambition is to conduct excellent biomedical research to Improve human health. Both clinical and pre-clinical technologies are developed and applied for this purpose. In preclinical techniques, such as in silico, in vitro, and laboratory animals, the predictive value for humans is central.

    It is their ambition to develop new innovative 3R methods and to have these methods accepted for application more quickly. They are, therefore, engaging and collaborating with all relevant parties including academics, legislators and regulators, governments, and industry. They use their own research tools to replace, reduce, and certainly refine animal testing.

    For us, transparency and communication are essential. They provide clear information about their activities and position on animal testing in order to establish a dialogue based on mutual respect.

    This dialogue is strengthened by the objective exchange of information (without compromising the safety of researchers and laboratory animals or the confidentiality of research data), and maximum transparency.

    In 2010, they committed ourselves to the Code for Transparency in Animal Testing and, in 2021, TNO signed the Dutch Transparency Agreement on Animal Testing. Central to both the code and the transparency agreement is that TNO engages with the various stakeholders on all aspects of animal testing. Openness about laboratory animal use and animal testing is one of the key issues in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) policy.

    This year saw the completion of the 'Open-by-Design' pilot to which TNO also contributed. Following this, a start will be made in 2022 to actively publish granted animal testing applications on the TNO website.

    We publish transparently and systematically about their animal testing, as recently laid down in the ARRIVE guideline (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) and the 'golden standard checklist'. Their staff have also endorsed the 'Montreal Declaration on the Synthesis of Evidence to Advance the 3Rs Principles in Science (pdf, 582 kB). In addition, their animal testing-based publications contain the information essential according to international guidelines in order to prevent the repetition of animal testing and to enable meta-analysis.

    Innovations to which they contribute

    The Netherlands wants to be at the forefront of the international transition to non-animal innovation. They work together with companies, governments, academic institutions, and civil society organisations on this transition by developing and applying technologies that contribute to this goal. For example, they are working with their partners on the Transition to Non-Animal Innovation (TPI) project initiated by the Dutch government, with the aim of speeding it up.

    We want to accelerate the transition to non-animal research and are working on new technologies to do so:

  • ‘Organ-on-a-chip': human stem cells are cultured on a chip to mimic specific human organ functions.
  • ‘Microtracing: also known as 'microdosing', this is a highly specialised technique involving the administration of very small, non-harmful quantities of drugs to humans. It can help to study what the human body does with the drug and vice versa.
  • In Silico systems.
  • Research using ex-vivo human material.
  • Our role at TNO is to look beyond the hype, by tackling the scientific foundations of new research. And to match the supply of innovations with industrial demands through contacts with industry in order to achieve practical implementation.

    With advanced technology, it is possible to collect the kinetic data of new drugs and innovative food ingredients more quickly than is currently the case. This greatly reduces the need for animal testing prior to the clinical phase. They carry out this research using an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This is an instrument that supports microdosing studies in humans and is available at TNO. In Europe, TNO is the first organisation to make AMS services available to pharmaceutical, biotech, and innovative food companies.

    Animal testing alternatives

    We aim to reduce, refine, and replace animal testing and have established a research programme for this purpose. Once they have found ways to Improve research methods, it becomes their top priority to gain wide acceptance and actually implement these 3R improvements.

    We aim to reduce the number of animals used for testing. They regularly evaluate their testing methods and implement integrated testing strategies. This is how they determine whether animal testing is necessary or whether the same information can be obtained by other means. In addition, for experiments in which only tissue from laboratory animals is needed (but not the intact animal), animals from other experiments or from control groups (within or outside TNO) are used, so that laboratory animals are used as optimally as possible.

    We strive to develop and adapt testing methods to minimise discomfort and stress to laboratory animals. They do this by using state-of-the-art techniques and continuously optimising suitable human and experimental endpoints.

    We aim to replace animal testing with other methods, preferably using human tissue and cells. Wherever possible, they use human samples. Examples include:

  • TIM: TNO’s unique gastrointestinal models for research on digestion of food or drug kinetics. They are trying to use this to replace animal testing with alternative research methods.
  • A test to determine the effects of (chemical) substances on eye irritation. This method uses unused tissue from slaughterhouse chickens instead of live animals. This has been formally accepted by the OECD, an international organisation for cooperation and economic development.
  • At TNO, they foster a stimulating environment in which their employees are encouraged to contribute their own ideas to make research more animal friendly. If a method offers improvement while maintaining the same research results, they make the new method available to others.

    In 2010, they received their first award from the Dutch Committee for the Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement of Animal Testing. This was prior to their efforts to reduce discomfort in animals during inhalation tests. Their modified design helps to reduce the distress of 50 to 70% of the 500 to 700 rats annually exposed to inhalation at TNO (distress is reduced particularly in young and female animals).

    This is an improvement on the commercially available materials. The manufacturer has joined us to look at the possibilities of making the adapted materials available to other users.

    Encouraging employees to contribute ideas is also paying off. In 2021, they were once again given an award for refinement of animal testing at the DALAS symposium. This was before all optimisations made by the animal testing researchers to the diabetic renal failure model. These optimisations included the introduction of ‘tube-handling’ which eliminates lifting the animals by the tail, heated racks, and improved measuring methods. All these aspects enabled the animals’ distress in these tests to be significantly reduced.

    Imaging is used as a diagnostic tool in hospitals to monitor changes over time. But it is developing all the time, and their scientists are studying how imaging can refine or reduce animal testing. Imaging allows a laboratory animal to be followed over a period of time. This allows the effects of a disease or treatment to be viewed at different stages. In addition, imaging is usually minimally invasive, which reduces stress and discomfort in laboratory animals and improves study results. More extensive research is needed on the application of imaging and the additional benefits.

    Our collaborative partnerships

    In order for parties involved in legislation and regulation to think differently about animal testing and alternatives, it is essential to consider a broader perspective. The whole area needs to change its mindset. An organisation can be a catalyst for change. That is why they are participating in various groups to encourage dialogue and find ways to make the 3R principles work.

    Intensive interaction between industry, academia, governments, and regulatory authorities is needed to accelerate the acceptance and validation of alternatives. They proactively provide information through scientific publications and lectures. Here are some examples of their network.

    We participate in:

  • The National Knowledge Centre for Alternatives (Het Nationaal Kenniscentrum Alternatieven or NKCA).
  • Dialogue and TRAIN (Three Rs Alternatives Initiating Network).
  • Discussion groups with other interested parties, including animal welfare organisations and political parties, with the aim of sharing their views on animal testing, creating respect, and exploring common goals.
  • Our employees are also active within various international platforms:

  • European and national authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Health Council.
  • The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) sets international requirements for safety testing, among other things. Their employees are involved in various working groups. Regarding the 3Rs, the OECD has officially recognised alternative tests, such as the Inoculated Chicken Eye test (ICE).
  • European and national associations that promote the development and use of alternatives to animal testing, such as IVTIP, INVITROM, and ESTIV.
  • We work with various links in the chain on a range of projects. For example, on the Peaks in the Delta project called SLIM (‘Sneller van Innovatie naar Mens’, or Faster from Innovation to People). This was commissioned by the Municipality and Province of Utrecht and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture, and Innovation and aims to bring innovative food and drugs from the laboratory to the clinic more quickly. The goal is to develop good practices to speed up acceptance of alternative testing methods.

    Young scientists are the key to the future of science and 3R research. To extend the training of young scientists, they support two university chairs: Alternatives to Animal Testing at Utrecht University of Applied Sciences and Translational Toxicology at Wageningen University.

    Facts and figures

    Animal testing is carried out with the utmost care. Over the past 35 years, the use of laboratory animals in the Netherlands has been more than halved. Also, at TNO, the number of animals used for testing has been significantly reduced. After a sharp decline in 2013, thanks to a revised breeding policy, their number of laboratory animals has remained stable in recent years, although a decrease in the number of laboratory animals was seen in 2020 as a result of Covid-19, which continued in 2021.

    Summary of total number of animal tests per year from 2015 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 3247 3032 2636 3180 2758 2102 1217

    The choice of an animal species for use in an animal experiment depends on its predictive value for humans. They mainly include rodents (mice, rats, and guinea pigs) due to the wide availability of historical data and proven translatability of the models used.

    However, rodents are not always the best model for humans and, therefore, other animal species are sometimes used. For example, a small number of pigs were used as animal models in 2021. The use of improved translatable models prevents unnecessary animal testing.

    Animal species used for experimental research within TNO Type of animal Number of animals Percentage Mice 919 75.5% Rats 118 9.7% Guinea pigs 178 14.6% Pigs 2 0,2% Total 1217 100%

    In 2021, they used mainly rodents in research, namely mice (76%), guinea pigs (15%), and rats (10%). More than three quarters of the mice are transgenic. These animals are implanted with a human gene, so the disease development in these animals is very similar to humans. Much research has been done with these transgenic mice so that they know which aspects of human diseases they are suitable for, and which they are not.

    We breed the special mice ourselves, making sure that the animals that are born are used as efficiently as possible. One of the ways in which they do this is by coordinating breeding centrally and by joining a national network of breeding coordinators in order to match supply and demand as closely as possible. This prevents a breeding surplus as much as possible.

    If animal organs or tissues are required for research, they do everything they can to avoid killing animals specifically for this purpose. For example, they have a collaboration agreement with several slaughterhouses for the supply of fresh pig tissue. They also have a collaboration agreement with Utrecht University and other institutes in the Netherlands to obtain organs and tissue from animals that have been killed for veterinary training or have been used in studies.

    Through these collaborations, they obtained tissue for testing without killing any additional animals. This has been used, for example, for research into the absorption of substances by the intestine, for which, among other things, fresh intestinal material is needed.

    In addition, they collaborate with hospitals, which allows us to regularly use fresh human material for research. They are active within the national VitalTissue project, an initiative that helps researchers in the Netherlands to obtain vital remnant human tissue. In addition to the improved translatability of research results, this method contributes to the reduction of animal testing.

    Objectives of animal testing

    At TNO, they conduct research into social issues. The results are used to cure and prevent conditions and diseases such as metabolic syndromes, obesity or cardiovascular diseases. They also study recovery from acute intoxications and the reduction of possible consequential damage. The purposes of animal testing are:

    applied and translational research (85%), basic scientific research (13%), education (2%).

    The majority of animal tests (97%) concern the efficacy (effectiveness) of medicines or therapies. Their applied research is largely into metabolic diseases and protection against intoxication.

    In addition to applied research, they also conduct basic scientific research into the mechanisms of diseases (0.2%).

    For the education and continuous training of staff, the refinement of research techniques, and the implementation of new research techniques and models, laboratory animals are used on a small scale (educational purposes): 3%).

    Number of animals used for the various research objectives within TNO Objective Number of animals Percentage Basic scientific research 2 0.2% Applied and translational research 1179 96.8% Education 36 3.0% Total 1217 100%

    Expertly trained staff contribute directly to the responsible use of laboratory animals. It is important to note that, for the training of staff, animals can usually be used that are not purchased specifically for this purpose, but which were present in the facility and could no longer be used in other experiments.

    Before animals are used, a replacement solution is sought. Is the use of animals unavoidable? They will then look into whether the study can be carried out with fewer animals, or whether methods can be refined. TNO also complies with the frameworks laid down in the  Experiments on Animal Act regarding the internal supervision of animal testing.

    An Animal Welfare Department (IvD) has been set up within TNO. This department assesses whether the experiments contribute to the goal defined in the licences. The IvD also supervises the workplace and is a source of information for all animal-related research. The chairperson of IvD is not part of the departments that carry out animal experiments. This establishes an additional independence step.

    Preventing distress

    If animal testing is necessary, they strive for the least possible distress for animals and the least possible number of animals required. In most cases, the test animals experience mild or moderate distress. Where possible, they reduce this, for example by earlier humane endpoints, better living conditions (such as cage enrichment), better testing methods or the use of pain relief.

    In a limited number of studies, an animal is anaesthetised for the purpose of the experiment, and waking the animals is not necessary to achieve the results. In this way, the animals experience as little distress as possible. Internationally, such studies are therefore classified separately as 'terminal'.

    At TNO, this concerns about 1.6% of animal experiments. Other animal experiments are classified as mild, moderate or severe distress according to the general guidelines.

    In 61% of animal experiments, mild distress is involved. An example type of experiment that falls into the 'mild distress' category is feeding animals a specific diet, for example a high or low fat diet. The animals are not bothered by this, but they are weighed from time to time, for example.

    In 35% of the animal experiments, there is moderate distress. In this case, it is necessary, for example, to inject the animals weekly and over a longer period with a substance to be studied, to take regular blood samples or to subject the animals to a light intervention under anaesthesia. Where possible, procedures are combined to reduce the number of interventions per animal. Pain management is also applied to animals undergoing minor surgery.

    Severe distress is caused in 3% of animal experiments. This involves testing the efficacy of drugs, where animals have certain symptoms. Inducing these symptoms in an animal can lead to ‘severe distress’.

    We test drugs for, among others, pulmonary fibrosis and to combat the effects of intoxications. In these studies, they choose the earliest possible experimental endpoint, so that the experiment can be stopped as soon as acceptable results are obtained and the animals are in distress for the shortest possible period of time.

    All animals are monitored daily for distress, and there is a special procedure if an animal requires additional attention.

    We value animal welfare and therefore have an AAALAC accreditation for their Leiden location. AAALAC stands for Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care and is a globally accepted organisation that aims to optimise animal welfare through a voluntary accreditation and test programme. This goes beyond the minimum legal requirements for animal testing.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug