Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 1Z0-1015
Exam Name : Oracle Incentive Compensation Cloud 2018 Implementation Essentials
Vendor Name : Oracle
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Exam Title : Oracle Incentive Compensation Cloud 2018 Implementation Essentials
Exam ID : 1Z0-1015
Exam Duration : 120 minutes
Questions in test : 75
Passing Score : 66%
Format : Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : Oracle Incentive Compensation 2018 Certified Implementation Specialist (OCS)
Recommended Practice : 1Z0-1015 Online VCE Practice Test

Initial Setup - Set up a Business Unit (BU), including Calendars and Parameters
- Generate Roles and Users
- Enable columns
- Explain the drivers of a BU structure design
- Describe Currency setup Participants - Deploy Employees, Resources, and Suppliers
- Import Participants
- Enable Participant Data
- Implement Roles and Participant Assignments
- Create Paygroups and Payment Plans
- Describe a Plan Acceptance workflow Credits and Earnings - Describe the different process sequences
- Execute Collection, Import, and Classification processes
- Troubleshoot processing errors
- Explain retro-calculations and the Revert process
- Explain incremental and full calculation modes
- Use the Run All option for processing Advanced Plan Structures and Calculations - Build advanced expressions
- Use Intervals, including interval-to-date and year-to-date
- Use Performance Measure outputs and interdependent Plan Components
- Use Phases and Sequences
- Describe user-defined functions
- Use Objective Base Performance Incentives (Management By Objectives) Define Extensibility - Describe the tools used to extend and modify the application
- Enable descriptive flex fields (DFFs) and list of values (LOVs)
- Describe how to create custom applications, schemas, and pages
- Deploy a home page modification
- Describe modifying pages and Personalization
- Manage and Move Configurations Creating and Modifying Roles, Functional and Data Security - Explain Job Roles and Duty Roles
- Create new Roles with modified functional security
- Create new Roles with modified data security
- Describe advanced security topics
- Configure Analyst Groups and Compensation Management Hierarchy Compensation Plans - Configure Classification Rule Hierarchies and Credit Categories
- Create Performance Measures
- Build Plan Components
- Design Rate Tables and Rate Table Dimensions
- Build Expressions
- Set up Estimated Compensation
- Explain Plan Copy Crediting and Rollup - Build a Credit Hierarchy and design a crediting process
- Create a Rollup Hierarchy and Teams, and diagnose a rollup process
- Explain how to enable custom qualifiers
- Describe how to skip Crediting and Rollup
- Enable hybrid crediting with a primary Credit Receiver on a transaction
- Use Research Assistant to troubleshoot crediting Adjustments, Disputes and Payment Approval - Describe the Dispute process
- Execute adjustments and re-processing
- Manage Paysheets and Paysheet submission
- Describe the payment batch and approval process Web service Integrations, Data Import/Export and Process Automation - Design integration with Bulk File Imports and Exports
- Design integration with web services and explain web service invocation
- Run Rule Imports, Goal Imports, and Participant Detail Imports
- Describe the Enterprise Service Scheduler and process automation
- Explain Fusion integrations Business Intelligence (BI) and Analytics - Create analyses with BI Composer and seeded Subject Areas
- Build complex reports with BI Analytics
- Create and manage reports with BI Publisher
- Describe how to build custom schemas and SQL queries
- Explain the BI Extender and how to deploy DFF's
- Describe a BI strategy for complex reporting
- Configure Mobile Commissions Cloud Implementations - Describe Cloud instance management, including Patching, Upgrades, and Clones
- Plan cloud incentive compensation projects
- Describe a testing strategy, a go-live, and a process handoff



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug