Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : C2010-595
Exam Name : IBM Maximo Asset Management V7.5 Fundamentals
Vendor Name : IBM
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C2010-595 test Format | C2010-595 Course Contents | C2010-595 Course Outline | C2010-595 test Syllabus | C2010-595 test Objectives


Exam Title : IBM Certified Associate - Maximo Asset Management V7.5
Exam ID : C2010-595
Exam Duration : 75 mins
Questions in test : 46
Passing Score : 67%
Official Training : IBM Maximo Asset Management 7.5 Fundamentals
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : IBM Maximo Asset Management Fundamentals Real Questions
VCE practice test : IBM C2010-595 Certification VCE Practice Test

Asset Management
- Given a set of failure classes, create a failure hierarchy by defining the problems, causes, and remedies and associating a failure class with an asset so that asset failures can be tracked.
- Given a physical or virtual location within a site and organization, create a location record, assign it to a system of locations, and track location information such as assigned users, custodians, and meters so that a location's characteristics can be defined.
- Given physical or logical meters, meter type and any applicable attribute, describe the purpose of meters, meter groups, and the three different meter types, create meter definitions in the Meters application, and described the various applications that use meters so that meters are defined and their uses described.
- Given an asset in a non-inventory location and a shared item set between swap destinations, describe the limitations and options of where assets can be moved to and from, the requirements for swapping assets, execute a mass move of assets, and swap assets between locations so that asset moves and swaps are understood and performed.
- Given an item master, companies, locations, master preventive maintenance, meters, classifications, and data sheets, describe, create, use ,and apply an asset template so that a template is described, created, and new assets are created or the template is applied to an existing asset.
- Given that the maintenance of assets and parts frequently require the replacement of parts and subassemblies, define and describe asset subassemblies and spare parts so that they may be readily identified when needed for replacement during repair and maintenance actions.
- Given the need for attributes to be added to a new or existing classification; add attributes to a new or existing classification so that they can be used in other applications.

Work Management and Planning
- Given that an IBM Maximo Asset Management V 7.5 work order may exist in a multiple work order hierarchy, explain how these work orders are related so that the user will be able to utilize the operational benefit of this functionality.
- Given that a user has security access to the Work Order module, enter a work order and follow-up work order so that the relationship and functionality are demonstrated.
- Given that a Maximo has been installed and the initial configuration has been completed, describe how to assign a work order so that the work order has been assigned.
- Given the initial configuration is completed, and assets have been set up, define how to add labor, crafts, services, and tools to the work order so that they are added.
- Given the initial configuration has been completed, describe what and how sequence is used on a work order so that sequencing and flow control may be used.
- Given the initial configuration has been completed, labor has been entered and a shift calendar associated with each record, describe how to use the Assignment Manager to assign work orders so that work orders have been assigned based upon the configuration.
- Given a Job Plan requirement with task steps, create a new organization and site specific Job Plan, add Task steps to the Job Plan and save the record so that the organization and site specific Job Plan with Tasks status is changed to active.
- Given daily time entries exist in the Labor Reporting application, perform normal daily tasks such as Approving Labor and Creating Invoices so that new time entries utilize the various methods of entering labor transactions.

Purchasing and Receiving
- Given items, vendors, and terms and conditions, create a new purchase contract, approve the contact, revise the contract, add an end date, and approve the new revision so that the original contract shows revised.
- Given an item set, inventory items and storerooms, create an inventory usage record that transfers items so that a shipment is created and received.
- Given a purchase order, receive items or services so that items or services are received.
- Given a purchase order with status Approved or In Progress that is not an internal purchase order, revise the purchase order in the Purchase Orders application so that the purchase order is revised.
- Given that a purchase order has been entered and has receipts that need to be voided, void the receipts so that the receipts are voided.
- Given that a rotating asset or direct-issue item has been received, describe how to return rotating assets or direct-issue items to vendors so that the rotating asset or direct-issue item has been returned.

Inventory Management
- Given the initial configuration has been completed, add and manage inventory and inventory balances so that the inventory may now be added and managed.
- Given the real cost of item on receipt and applied whenever an inventory transaction occurs, describe how Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) and First-In-First-Out (FIFO) will function so that the differences can be identified.
- Given that an Item has been added to the Item Master, add it to the storeroom so that it is available for inventory management.
- Given the principles of asset management, identify the rotating items function and their lifecycle so they can be used and managed.
- Given an inventory item, issue, transfer, or ship using the Inventory Usage application so that an inventory usage transaction has been completed.
- Given items, inventory, storerooms ,and work orders, describe hard and soft reservations so that hard and soft reservations have been described.
- Given a consignment item, create, receive, issue, and generate an invoice for a consignment stock item so that consignment stock is created, used and paid
- Given existing inventory usage records of usage types and usage record statuses associated with charge entities, select records from the Inventory Usage application and expand Usage Lines to track the issue, transfer, and return of inventory items within and across organizations so that these records are tracked, transferred, or returned.

Service Management
- Given a new request from a user and information about the request, create a new service request record and input the request information, assign the service request to an owner and change the service request status to its current status so that a new service request is created.
- Given ticket template information for common, high volume requests, explain the benefits of ticket templates, describe the requirements for applying templates, create a ticket template, and apply a template to an service request so that a ticket templates are explained, created, and applied.
- Given a pre-defined classification hierarchy and a classifiable service request, describe the purpose and the process of applying a classification so that service request classification is explained and applied to a ticket.
- Given access to the Labor Reporting application, report labor hours by ticket, work order, contract, and labor so that the labor hours are reported.
- Given an SLA between the provider and customer, and a service request, explain the purpose of SLAs and the process of applying or disassociating a SLA from a service request so that SLAs are explained and managed against a service request.

Navigating and Reporting
- Given an integration object and Application Designer, run and save query-based report from the Work Order application so that a query-based report has been executed.
- Given a valid SMTP configuration and email recipient(s), describe the available report delivery formats and send an email with a URL to a report file so that report delivery formats are explained and an email is sent with a URL to a report file.
- Given an awareness of different file types, describe the file type options for both emailed and exported reports so that an understanding of various file types is demonstrated and a report is exported to a file.
- Given group specific requirements and administrator rights, create or modify a Start Center template, list the available formatting options, describe the different portlets, set a Start Center as default and assign to a security group so that a Start Center template is created/modified and configured per group requirements.
- Given the active record includes the functionality to have multiple statuses, use the application status change function to change its status to a valid new status so that the status of the record is changed.

Preventative Maintenance
- Given preventive maintenance (PM) needs, create and manage PM records so that assets may be properly managed and ROI is optimized.
- Given PM needs, create master PM records so that they may be associated to multiple assets or locations so that they enhance and simplify the management of multiple assets or locations for large numbers of similar assets.
- Given a set of PM's, update the PM records so that work orders are or will be generated either automatically or manually.
- Given assets, locations, and job plans, create routes, and associate the routes with a PM and work order so that the routes are created an applied.
- Given that PM records and scheduling information is selected, generate a PM forecast for a new or existing PM record so that the forecast is generated.
- Given an active PM, location, asset and route, apply a forecast so that it can be used in Scheduler or a reforecast as necessary.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug