Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : C2040-986
Exam Name : Creating IBM Lotus Notes and Domino 8.5 Applications with Xpages and Advanced Techniques
Vendor Name : IBM
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C2040-986 exam Format | C2040-986 Course Contents | C2040-986 Course Outline | C2040-986 exam Syllabus | C2040-986 exam Objectives


Exam Title : IBM Certified Application Developer - Lotus Notes and Domino 8.5
Exam ID : C2040-986
Exam Duration : 100 mins
Questions in exam : 82
Passing Score : 60 / 82
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : Creating IBM Lotus Notes and Domino Applications Real Questions
VCE practice test : IBM C2040-986 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic Details Application Architecture - Designing Web applications that read non-Domino data
- Setting up Web site rules Application Configuration - Creating and enabling a Data Connection Resource
- Setting database ACL advanced properties Programming and Design Elements - Advanced options for columns
- Create and use image resource sets
- Creating a Web service Consumer
- Enabling and using agent profiling
- Integrating eclipse features into the design including working set
- Personalizing Web site experience using Cookies
- Understanding XSLT
- Using electronic signatures in Notes applications
- Working with DXL Tools Security - Determining Secure Sockets Layer security
- Planning application security based on Web authentication
- Planning Single Sign-on
- Setting and troubleshooting agent security
- Setting Database Access Controlling Web Authentication Using Anonymous Access Using Maximum Internet name and password Using Roles - Setting database ACL advanced properties
- Understanding Database encryption
- Using Mail encryption Xpages Application Architecture - Comparing available Features
- Comparing forms based to Xpages Application architecture
- Comparing Security Features
- Designing applications that work on mobile clients
- Designing applications that work on Web clients
- Exploring page layout and navigation
- Planning an Xpages Application
- Planning your Xpages application navigation
- Understand server tasks for web browsing
- Understand the purpose and features of Xpages Capabilities of themes Distinctions between themes and CSS Extensible via custom controls Understand the Purpose and value of preprogrammed simple actions in Web Applications Value of being Ajax enabled - Understanding server tasks for Web browsing
- Understanding Xpages application architecture Xpages Application Configuration - Setting database launch properties(launching into Xpages) Open designated page in notes client (Xpages) - forms properties Open designated Xpage for the notes client- database properties - Troubleshooting database performance Caching (Xpages) Server page persistence (Xpages) Single copy Xpage design Xpages Application Security - Restricting access to an Xpage
- Server document settings affecting Xpages
- Transforming domino forms into xpages withXSLT
- Troubleshooting Effective Access
- Using Xpage Custom Control ACLs Xpages Design Elements - Creating, Troubleshooting, Modifying Custom Controls
- Creating, Troubleshooting, Modifying Xpages
- Deploying, utilizing LotusScript agents
- Restricting access to an Xpage
- Troubleshooting workflow routing issues
- Understand purpose and use of the Outline view
- Understanding the JavaScript Document Object Model (DOM)
- Using calendar views in applications
- Using design perspectives
- Using electronic signatures in Notes applications
- Working with visibility formulas Xpages in Domino Applications - Change Document Mode
- Confirm Action
- Connecting to Enterprise data
- Create Response Document
- Delete Document
- Delete Selected Documents
- Design and develop using XPages, including: Add styles Create and edit and use Theme resources Debug XPage programming issues - Execute Script
- Javascript Accessing databases, views, and documents Searching for documents in a view or database Stepping through a view to access documents - Leverage Global functions in Server-side scripting ApplicationScope Context Cookie FacesContext GetClientId GetComponent Header Param RequestScope SessionScope View - Managing data and design replication
- Modify Field
- Open Page
- Other Controls Use Container Controls Use Core Controls - Programming with the formula language
- Save Data Sources
- Save Document
- Server document settings affecting the Xpages
- Set Value
- Understand purpose and use of the Controls Palette
- Understand purpose and use of the Data Palette
- Understand the purpose and use of the events view
- Use pre-programmed simple actions in Web applications, including
- Using @ commands in web Applications
- Using @ Functions in Web Applications



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug