Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : C9060-528
Exam Name : IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Administration
Vendor Name : IBM
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Exam Title : IBM Certified Administrator - Spectrum Protect V8.1
Exam ID : C9060-528
Exam Duration : 90 mins
Questions in test : 66
Passing Score : 62%
Official Training : IBM Spectrum Protect 7.1.6 Advanced Administration, Tuning, and Troubleshooting
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : IBM Spectrum Protect Administration Real Questions
VCE VCE test : IBM C9060-528 Certification VCE Practice Test

IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Concepts
- List IBM Spectrum Protect V 8.1.0 server components
- Describe Spectrum Protect V8.1 client components
- Describe the different IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1 data management methodologies such as: progressive incremental, differential, full
- Describe IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1 server (critical - most typical/relevant) processes
- Describe Spectrum Protect V8.1 Operations Center tasks/functions
- Describe IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 monitoring and alerting
- Explain IBM Spectrum Protect V 8.1.0 deduplication (inline/client side)
- Describe the purpose of IBM Spectrum Protect for Databases and IBM Spectrum Protect for Mail
- Describe the data protection methods available in IBM Spectrum Protect for virtual environments
- Describe IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1 Windows/UNIX backup/archive client automatic deployment.
- Explain Node Replication feature in IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1
- Describe IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 multiple data streams for database backup and restore
- Explain IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1.0 Policy management

IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Daily Operations
- Monitor ongoing health of the IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 environment using the IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Operations Center
- Monitor/ schedule client operations
- Monitoring and scheduling housekeeping operations
- Rotate tapes offsite (DR media management)

IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Server Management
- Monitor and manage IBM Spectrum Protect database and recovery log usage
- Protect the storage pools
- Manage Node Replication
- Manage device classes and storage pools including active data pools, deduplication pools, simultaneous write during storage pool migration, and data shredding
- Manage policy domain, policy sets, management class, and copy groups
- Manage library, drives, and paths
- Configure, monitor and manage server-to-server communication tasks in a IBM Spectrum Protect server netrwork
- Manage disaster recovery (DR) components, DR plan file, and off-site media
- Describe client node management in IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1
- Protect the IBM Spectrum Protect Database
- Manage administrative users (add, delete and provide privileges).
- Monitor the data reduction ratio
- Repair damaged data in a directory container
- Manage replicated data with policies that are defined on the targetreplication server
- Configure daily or monthly reports regarding server operations.

IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Client Management
- Install IBM Spectrum Protect backup/archive clients and configure the option files
- Manage IBM Spectrum Protect client component and services (e.g., configure and manage a BA client scheduler, web access, journal daemon or journal engine service etc.)
- Manage Spectrum Protect V8.1 client security and encryption (e.g., configure Spectrum Protect V8.1client behind a proxy server or firewall, password encryption, client data encryption, Secure Socket Layer (SSL), etc.)
- Configure alternative IBM Spectrum Protect backup/archive methodologies (e.g., configure IBM Spectrum Protect journal based backup, Image backup, Inline deduplication, configure data archive, etc.)
- Configure IBM Spectrum Protect LAN-free backup restore
- Manage and configure IBM Spectrum Protect for NDMP communication
- Configure an IBM Spectrum Protect Client for Node Replication
- Manage IBM Spectrum Protect client/node authorization
- Recover IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 client data (Backup/Archive data)
- Manage client data (Decommission a client node; move data between storage pools; move node data)

IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 Performance and Problem Determination
- Identify/analyze IBM Spectrum Protect Server problems
- Identify/analyze errors reported in IBM Spectrum Protect client logs
- Tune IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 server for better performance (e.g., reclamation, expiration, migration, IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 server database backup, IBM Spectrum Protect V8.1 server settings and recommend network changes to support and tune IBM Spectrum Protect DB2 table and index reorgs, etc.).
- Tune IBM Spectrum Protect Client for better performance (e.g., resourceutilization, memoryefficient, compression, deduplication, recommend network changes to support and tune IBM Spectrum Protect, etc.)
- Troubleshoot and tune IBM Spectrum Protect LAN-free client configuration
- Troubleshoot Spectrum Protect V8.1 client using Spectrum Protect V8.1 Client Management Services
- Analyze Operating System error reporting or perfmon logs



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug